1990s

Fake baking on a Friday: fun faux tanning ads

I was originally going to write a meatier post about the history of tanning that included sunless tanning, but there's actually been plenty of research already.  Rather than essentially re-writing what's already out there I decided to go the more visual route and show ads for products promising to give you that sun-kissed glow for both face and body.  I will include some history and links throughout, but mostly this is a way for me to share my never-ending obsession with vintage beauty ads.  :) 

Prior to the early 1920s, having tawny, sun-drenched skin simply wasn't desirable - at least for women.  Fair complexions were associated with the leisure class, while tan skin indicated a lower social status (i.e. people who had to work outdoors).  While the beauty industry was in its infancy, there were still plenty of products, such as this Tan No More powder, that promoted the pale skin ideal. 

Ad for Tan No More, 1924(image from library.duke.edu)

Just five short years later, however, the tan tide had turned.  Coco Chanel is credited by many historians as the one responsible for making the bronzed look stylish following a cruise she took in 1923, essentially reversing the significance of pale vs. tan complexions (i.e., tans were now associated with having the time and money for a luxury vacation in a sunny paradise, as well as good health.)  By 1929 products were on the market to achieve the glowing effect on the skin without the need to travel to some far-flung destination, such as this Marie Earle "Sunburn" line of makeup.  (Cosmetics and Skin has an excellent history of this company.  While not much is known about the founders, the Marie Earle line had some fairly innovative, if ineffective products, like breast-firming cream and eye masks.)

Marie Earle ad, 1929
(image from library.duke.edu)

Interestingly, in 1928 Marie Earle was bought by Coty, so it's probably not a coincidence that Coty released their Coty Tan bronzing powder and body makeup a year later.

CotyTan ad, 1929

CotyTan ad, 1929(images from cosmeticsandskin.com and library.duke.edu) 

The 1940s saw an increase in the number of bronzers and tanning body makeup, the latter influenced partially by the shortage of nylon stockings during World War II - women resorted to painting their legs with makeup or staining them with a tea-based concoction to create the illusion of stockings.  Always looking to sell more products, companies soon began offering tinted body makeup to mimic a natural tan.

Ad for Paul Duval Safari Tan, 1941(image from pinterest.com) 

Ad for Paul Duval Safari Tan, 1946(image from ebay.com)

Um...would you like a side of racism with your liquid body bronzer?

Elizabeth Arden ad, 1941(image from library.duke.edu)

Ad for Elizabeth Arden Velva Leg Film, 1946
(image from Found in Mom's Basement)

Elizabeth Arden ad, 1948(image from ebay.com)

By the late '40s cosmetics companies made sure women could also artificially tan their faces, as a slew of bronzing powders entered the market.  I couldn't resist purchasing a few of these ads.

Ad for Lady Esther Malibu Tan face powder, 1947

Ad for Lady Esther Malibu Tan face powder, 1947

Ad for Lady Esther Malibu Tan face powder, 1947

Ad for Lady Esther Malibu Tan face powder, 1947

Ad for Pond's Bronze Angel Face powder, 1948

Ad for Pond's Bronze Angel Face powder, 1951
(image from pinterest.com)
 

Ad for Woodbury Tropic Tan, 1949

Here's a detailed shot so you can see the ad copy...and gratuitous cleavage.  LOL.

Ad for Woodbury Tropic Tan, 1949

Ad for Woodbury Tropic Tan ad, 1951
(image from pinterest.com)

And more casual racism from Germaine Monteil. 

Ad for Germaine Monteil, 1947

Ad for Germaine Monteil, 1950(image from ebay.com)

Once again, I fell victim to the idea that a beauty product has only been around for a few decades.  But it looks like spray tans have been around since at least the mid-50s!

Guerlain Misty Tan ad
(image from fashion.telegraph.co.uk)

Spray tan ad, 1955(image from Found in Mom's Basement)

In the late 1950s Man Tan sunless tanning lotion - or what we call self-tanner more commonly these days - debuted, featuring a new way of getting tan without the sun.  Instead of traditional tinted makeup that merely covered the skin, Man Tan used an ingredient known as dihydroxyacetone (DHA), which works on the amino acids on the skin's surface to gradually darken its color.  It sounds like a harmful, scary process that relies on synthetic chemicals, but DHA is actually derived from sugar cane and is still used in most self-tanners today.* 

Man Tan ad, ca. late 1950s

Miss Man Tan ad, ca. late 1950s
(images from twitter and pinterest)

In 1960 Coppertone introduced QT, short for Quick Tan, and many others followed.  The poor models in these ads already look orange - I shudder to think of how carrot-like you'd be in person.

Ad for Coppertone QT, 1961(image from ebay.com)

Ad for Coppertone QT, 1966(image from pinterest.com)

You MUST watch these commercials, they're a hoot!

 

In addition to bronzers, around this time companies were also launching color campaigns specifically for tanned skin.  These shades aren't so different from the ones we see in today's summer makeup collections - warm, beige and bronze tones abound.  Both Max Factor's Breezy Peach and 3 Little Bares (get it?!) were seemingly created to complement a tawny complexion, while Clairol's powder duos and Corn Silk's Tan Fans line offered bronzer and blush together to artificially prolong and enhance a natural tan.

Ad for Max Factor Breezy Peach, 1962(image from pinterest.com) 

Ad for Max Factor 3 Little Bares, 1965
(image from pinterest.com) 

Clairol Soft-Blush Duo ad, 1967

Ad for Corn Silk Tan Fans, 1969(image from pinterest.com)

Meanwhile, Dorothy Gray had tan-flattering lip colors covered.  This was not new territory for them, as this 1936 ad referenced a new "smart lipstick to accent sun-tan".  In any case, the 1965 ad is also notable for the yellow lipstick all the way on right, which was meant to brighten another lip color when layered underneath...over 50 years before Estée Edit's Lip Flip and YSL's Undercoat.

Dorothy Gray ad, 1965(image from mid-centurylove.tumblr.com)

The tanning craze wasn't going anywhere soon, as various self-tanning and bronzer formulas for body and face continued to be produced from the '70s onward.  As skin cancer rates rose, there was also an uptick in the number of ads that emphasized protection from the sun over the convenience angle (i.e., the ability to get a tan in just a few hours and no matter the climate) - self-tanners started to be marketed more heavily as a healthy alternative to a real tan.

When it launched around 2004, I thought Stila's Sun Gel was such an innovative product.  Little did I know Almay had done it roughly 30 years prior.

Almay sun gel 1970(image from flickr.com) 

Bain de Soleil ad, 1983

Tried though I did, I was unable to find a vintage ad for Guerlain's legendary Terracotta bronzer, which debuted in 1984.  So I had to settle for these Revlon ads from the same year.

Revlon-pure-radiance-80s

Ad for Revlon Pure Radiance, 1984(images from pinterest and adsausage.com)

Bain de Soleil ad, 1990
(image from Found in Mom's Basement)

Chanel Soleil ad, 1990
(image from pinterest.com)

Estée Lauder self-tanner ad, 1991

Estée Lauder self-tanner ad, 1991(image from fuckyeahnostalgicbeauty)

I searched all the '90s magazines in the Museum's archives, but realized almost all of them were March, September or October issues, so I couldn't unearth any fake tan ads for most of the decade.  I did have better luck with finding ads online and in the Museum's archives for the 2000's, however.  It makes sense as I had started collecting by then, not to mention that the early-mid aughts were the Gisele Bundchen/Paris Hilton era so fake tanning was at its peak.  I just remembered that I neglected to check my old Sephora catalogs...I'll have to see if I can locate any photos of Scott Barnes' Body Bling, another hugely popular product in the 2000's.

Lancome Star Bronzer ad, 2003

Neutrogena ad, 2003(images from reed.edu)

Here are the ones from the Museum's collection.  Thanks to the husband for scanning them!

Armani Bronze Mania ad, 2005

MAC Sundressing postcard, 2006

Love this Armani ad, which coincidentally came out the same year Mystic Tan spray booths were launched.

Armani Bronze Mania ad, 2007

YSL summer beauty postcard, 2008

Benefit summer 2010 catalog

As the decade came to a close, there was some discussion as to whether tanned skin, real or fake, was passé.  But the continuing growth of the self-tanning market (as well as the influence of the bronzed Jersey Shore cast) showed that the infatuation with tanning wasn't slowing down.  The Paris Hilton era segued seamlessly into the Kardashian age, which also contributed to the popularity of the bronzed look.  Companies are still trying to keep up with the demand for bronzers and self-tanners.  For the past 5 years or so, Estée Lauder, Lancome, Clarins, Guerlain and Givenchy have released new bronzing compacts at the start of the summer, and just this past year Hourglass and Becca released a range of new bronzing powders.  Meanwhile, established products like Benefit's Hoola bronzer and St. Tropez's self-tanning line are being tweaked and expanded.

In terms of advertising bronzers and self-tanners, I think cosmetics companies do a damn good job.  The products themselves certainly look tempting, but one also can't deny the sex appeal of the glowy, bronzey look of the models (not to mention that a tan makes everyone look like they lost 10 lbs).  Who doesn't want to resemble a sunkissed goddess lounging about in a tropical paradise?  It's largely this reason, I think, that the tan aesthetic persists.  As usual, Autumn Whitefield-Madrano offers an insightful exploration of why tawny skin continues to be in vogue so rather than me rambling further I highly encourage you to read it in full.  As for me, well, I've largely given up on self-tanning.  It was messy, came out uneven no matter how much I exfoliated and how carefully I applied it, and still didn't look quite like the real deal.  I do, however, still use bronzer once in a while (mostly as blush, but occasionally in the summer I'll dust it all over my face) and have been tinkering with temporary wash-off body bronzers.  I don't consider bronzer a staple by any means - most days I fully embrace my pasty self - but the fact that I own 6 of them is proof of the long-standing allure of the tan and how effectively the products required to achieve it are marketed.

What do you think?  Which of these ads are your favorite?  And are you down with the tanned look or no? 

 

*Recent research has shown DHA to be safe for topical use; however, inhaling it, say, from a spray tan booth, is less safe.

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A vintage menagerie from Shiseido

Well well well, what have we here?

Plushies making new friends

To be honest, I really have no idea.  All I know is that when I searched for vintage Shiseido on Ebay, I came up with a spate of white porcelain animal figurines.  Some other things: 1. they represent the animals from the Chinese zodiac; 2. there were a few different designs of each animal; 3. I went into a frenzy trying to collect all of them (unsuccessfully), and; 4. they were produced, or at least sourced, by a company named the Connor Group for Shiseido.  What I'm struggling with is why they were made and for whom they were intended.  I'm also not certain about the exact dates of the various versions, since some of the sellers listed them as being from the '70s, others from the '80s, and still more were made in the '90s, according to accompanying paperwork. 

I'll go in the order of the zodiac, starting with the rat.  Cute, no?  Given the shiny finish (more on that soon) I'm assuming it's from 1972 or 1984, but it's impossible to say.

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac rat figurine

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac rat figurine

Next is the ox, from either 1973 or 1985.

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac ox figurine

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac ox figurine

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac ox figurine

Here's a different version of the ox, which I think might be from the '90s.  I was able to save this image from the Ebay listing but unfortunately someone snatched up the figurine itself a while ago.

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac ox figurine
(image from ebay.com)

Tigers!  This one came with a fold-out that made things even more confusing. 

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac tiger figurine

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac tiger figurine

The style of the figurine is consistent with ones that are from the '90s, which we'll see later in this post, but the paper it came with clearly indicates it's from 1974.  Plus, there's no mention of Shiseido anywhere, not in the letter or even on the figurine - the other ones with the shiny finish have "Shiseido Japan" printed on them.  The seller also included the original shipping box it came in to the U.S. from Japan, but there were no clues there either.

Shiseido/W.E. Connor letter

Here's a different tiger. 

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac tiger figurine

RAWWWRRRR!

This rabbit could be from 1975 or 1987.  According to this Etsy seller who had one listed for sale previously, it's from the '80s, but without anything else to go on the date is uncertain.

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac rabbit figurine

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac rabbit figurine

My favorite is the dragon, again most likely from 1976 or 1988.

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac dragon figurine

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac dragon figurine

The snakes are pretty cool too, unfortunately I couldn't track them down.

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac snake figurines
(image from hautejuice.wordpress.com)

The horse is also tricky.  This one could be from 1978, given that this Ebay seller has another style.  (I have one of them on the way to me).  I got so desperate for answers I actually asked the seller if they had any other information.  No answer yet.

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac horse figurine

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac horse figurine

This goat (or ram) is from 1991, according to the foldout it came with.  But it's in a similar style to the tiger that's allegedly from 1974, and also has the same non-shiny finish and no Shiseido name printed on it.  See why I'm frustrated?!

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac goat/ram figurine

Poor little guy has a tiny chip on his nose.

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac goat/ram figurine

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac ram fold out

Another version of the goat/ram, which was also sold before I could get my hands on it...no clue as to when it's from.

The monkey is also perplexing.  This one is apparently from 1992.

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac monkey figurine

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac monkey figurine

Shiseido monkey figurine foldout

And here's a different version, from the same Etsy seller who had the rabbit for sale, so maybe this one is from 1980?

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac monkey figurine

Shiseido Chinese zodiac monkey figurine
(images from etsy.com)

Here's this year's critter, which I also missed out on.

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac rooster figurine

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac rooster figurine
(images from worthpoint.com)

This cute little akita was another that got away.  I'm assuming this one is also from the '80s.

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac dog figurine

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac dog figurine
(images from etsy.com)

And finally, a little piggy, ostensibly from 1995. 

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac pig figurine

Vintage Shiseido Chinese zodiac pig figurine

Sadly, I don't think I'll ever solve the mystery behind these figurines.  I emailed both Shiseido and the Connor Group for more insight and was quite disappointed at not hearing a word from Shiseido.  You would think a company that is so committed to preserving their history would be interested in hearing from someone who is equally passionate about it and get back to me.  I don't think it's a matter of them not having any information either - again, since they have a whole museum and are clearly dedicated to recording all aspects of the company, I just know someone there knows something about these figurines!  I bet all the paperwork related to them is sitting in a basement in Shiseido's headquarters, but no one can be bothered to do a little digging.  I did get a reply from the Connor Group but they had no idea what these were and asked for more information.  So I sent pictures of both the figurines and letter that came with the tiger and never heard back.  Sigh.  My best guess is that these were either gifts to employees or gifts for Camellia Club members - in researching the rainbow powders, I learned that the latter group had access to exclusive Shiseido items (um, how awesome are these Erté dishes?!)  However, most of the Camellia Club gifts are labeled as such, whereas there is no such notation on the figurines or the papers they came with.  Shiseido also seems to collaborate with companies for other non-makeup items, like this anniversary plate produced by Noritake, so maybe the figurines were just some random item they had for sale.  Still, it drives me crazy that I don't have a definitive answer.

At least the plushies are enjoying playing with their new friends!

Let's joust!

Wait, don't we need lances for that?

Do you have any idea as to why Shiseido made these figurines?  And which one was your favorite?

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Everybody's eating makeup: A brief history of food-scented cosmetics

A few years back I explored makeup that visually resembled sweets.  But what about makeup that actually smells like desserts and other foods?  Sure, bath and body products and skincare items with foodie aromas have been popular for years, but I found it interesting that color products, i.e. items worn on the face that usually aren't scented at all or with the typical floral/herbal scents, are being made to smell like chocolate and other edible delights.  So let's take a look at when this phenomenon started and where it's headed.

The earliest evidence of flavored/scented makeup that I could find is from the late '1930s.  I'm not sure whether these lipsticks were eventually released for sale or even what brand they were, but here are some happy ladies testing them in the May 1939 issue of Popular Science.

Flavored lipstick 1939(image from blog.modernmechanix.com)

Roughly a decade later Harriet Hubbard Ayer released a clove-flavored lipstick. 

Harriet Hubbard Ayer ad,

It was followed by this mint-rose scented lipstick in 1951.

Harriet Hubbard Ayer ad, 1951
(images from ebay.com)

Slightly less sophisticated but extraordinarily popular among the teenage crowd, fruit-scented lip products really took off in the early '60s.  Cutex claims to be the first company to offer fruit-flavored lipsticks in this 1964 ad.  (You might remember this from my fruity ad round-up.)

1964 Cutex ad(image from buzzfeed.com)

Soon after, in 1971, Yardley jumped on the fruit-scented lipstick bandwagon. I also remembered this one from the fruit ad post.

Yardley ad, 1971

And in 1972, the company expanded the Lip Licks line to include dessert-inspired flavors (you might remember this ad from the Sweet Tooth exhibition.)

Yardley ad, 1972(image from flickr.com)

The foody-scented lip balm craze reached new heights in 1973, when a company named Bonne Bell introduced their Lip Smackers flavored balm.  Starting with just 3 flavors, (strawberry, green apple and lemon), the company debuted their Dr. Pepper-scented balm in 1975, and soon Lip Smackers became a staple for tweens and teens everywhere.  By 2012 the company offered 400 flavors worldwide.  (Bonne Bell was purchased by Markwins in 2015, a company that still produces Lip Smackers today sans the Bonne Bell name).

Bonne Bell ad, 1979(image from oldadvertising.blogspot.com)

Avon wanted in on the action, as evidenced by these dessert-flavored balms that were released throughout the '70s and '80s.  (I'm not sure exactly who these were being marketed to - I imagine it was mostly kids, but maybe some teenagers and adults bought them too.)

Vintage Avon Hershey's Kiss balm

Vintage Avon cookie gloss

Vintage Avon lip pomade
(images from etsy.com)

Thanks in large part to the enormously popular Lip Smackers line, other companies proceeded to try to get a piece of the teenage demographic by cranking out flavored lip products through the '80s. 

Maybelline ad, 1980
(image from liketotally80s.com)

By the early aughts, products like Philosophy's Lip Shines and On 10's vintage-inspired lip balm tins came in more upscale, less teenybopper-esque packaging and at a higher price point to appeal to a more grown-up crowd, but retained a few of the same scents as the inexpensive likes of Bonne Bell.  In 2004 Tinte Cosmetics revived popular flavored balms that were known as "Lip Lickers" and produced by a Minnesota-based company from 1977 through 2002.  In an effort to appeal to older women's nostalgic side, Tinte retained both the original sliding tin packaging and graphics.  The food-scented balm market started to achieve full saturation around this time, especially when a company named Lotta Luv began partnering with big food and beverage companies like Hershey's, Pepsi, and Dairy Queen, along with a variety of other well-known snack, candy, cereal, and chewing gum brands.  Novelty companies offering their own crazy food flavored balms soon sprung up afterwards.  By 2012 one could find balms flavored in foods ranging from Cheetos and beer to pickles and corn dogs

My hypothesis is that since foodie lip balms had officially jumped the shark with all these wacky flavors, coupled with the fact that makeup companies were only including lip balms among their scented cosmetic offerings, makeup brands had to get more creative when it came to adding fragrance to their products.  No longer were clear lip balms enough - it was time to branch out into face and eye products, along with lip products that actually contained color.  Chocolate and other desserts were still the reining favorites.  But items like Stila Lip Glazes and Becca Beach Tints, both of which offered a variety of fruity scents, as well as Benefit's peach-scented Georgia blush, also proved popular.  Some items unintentionally offered a subtle food aroma as a natural byproduct of the ingredients used, such as Bourjois's and Too-Faced's cocoa-powder based bronzers and 100% Pure's fruit-pigmented makeup line. 

Food-scented makeup, '90s and early aughts

  1. Bourjois Bronzing Powder, 2006
  2. Benefit Georgia blush, 2004*
  3. MAC Lip Glass Tastis, 2004*
  4. 100% Pure Fruit-Pigmented Mascara, ca. 2007
  5. Urban Decay XXX Slick in Cocoa, 2004*
  6. Becca Beach Tint, ca. 2006
  7. Benefit SugarBomb blush, 2009
  8. Stila Lip Glaze, ca. 1999
  9. Jane Iredale Chocoholicks lip palette, ca. 2009
  10. Too-Faced Soleil Matte Bronzer, 2009

By 2012, foodie-smelling products were becoming less novel and more expected, but this familiarity among consumers didn't seem to diminish their popularity; even chocolate-scented makeup bags made an appearance.  Additionally, as Asian brands became more visible and available to the Western world, sales of their chocolate-scented products took off as well.

Foody-scented makeup highlights, 2012-2014

  1. DuWop Haute Chocolate Lip Venom, 2014
  2. Too-Faced Chocolate Bar palette, spring 2014
  3. Love Switch Pink Brown mascara, 2012
  4. Holika Holika Dessert Time Lip Balms, 2012
  5. Etude House Chocolate Eyes, spring 2013 (it should look familiar, as it was a key exhibition piece)
  6. Makeup Revolution Death by Chocolate palette, 2014
  7. Skin Food Choco Eyebrow Powder Cake, 2013
  8. Rimmel Chocolate Sweet Eyes, 2014

Face products weren't the only ones getting the food scent treatment, however.  While scented nail polishes were previously the sole domain of children, nail companies soon seized on the demand among adults for these products.  From Color Club's Pumpkin Spice Latte scented polish to Butter London's berry-scented polish remover, fingernails were now able to join in on the foodie fun.  Whether it was partially Dior's rose-scented polishes from their spring 2012 collection or the influence of Rosalyn Rosenfeld's (played by Jennifer Lawrence) vivid description of a nail polish top coat's odor in the 2013 film American Hustle, scented nail products rose to prominence in the past 5 years.  And the most popular ones smell not "like flowers, but with garbage"; rather, foodie polishes prove to be the best sellers.

Scented nail products

  1. Butter London polish remover trio, 2012 (I REALLY miss those Butter London polish removers - they were the best!!  They smelled great and worked even better.  They had another limited edition set that contained a pina colada-scented remover called Beach Bum, which I loved.)
  2. Ad for Mattese Happy Hour cocktail-scented polishes - if you can't make it out, the scents were Apple Martini, Shirley Temple, Hypnotic, Tequila Sunrise, Cosmopolitan, and Purple Passion.
  3. Ciaté Mint Choc Pot, 2015 (I think the Choc Pots are the reincarnation of Ciaté's previous foray into scented polish removers, which sucked - I wonder if the Choc Pots are any better).
  4. L.A. Colors Melon nail polish remover pads, ca. 2011
  5. Model's Own Sweet Shop Fizzy Cola Bottles, 2014 (the Sweet Shop collection is a follow up to Model's Own popular Fruit Pastel collection released the previous year)
  6. Sally Girl Vanilla scented polish, holiday 2014
  7. Revlon Parfumerie scented polish, 2013
  8. Color Club Pumpkin Spice Latte polish, ca. 2011 (this company has also released holiday-themed scented polishes)

Companies continue the foodie fad today.  Too-Faced is leading the way with a whopping 5 new food-scented products in their spring/summer 2016 lineup.  Japanese brands Lunasol and RMK both offered sweet-scented items in 2015, while Etude House built on their previous dessert-y releases with their Give Me Chocolate spring 2015 collection, a gingerbread cookie scented bronzer in their holiday 2015 collection, and strawberry-scented cream blushes and nail polishes for their spring 2016 collection.  Finally, this spring Physician's Formula gets tropical with a coconut-scented bronzer.

Foody makeup 2015-2016

  1. Etude House Give Me Chocolate collection, spring 2015
  2. Lunasol Selection de Chocolat eyes, fall 2015
  3. Too-Faced Peach palette, spring/summer 2016
  4. Too-Faced Chocolate Bon Bons palette, winter/spring 2016
  5. Etude House Berry Delicious Cream Blush, spring 2016
  6. RMK Vintage Sweets collection lip glosses (flavors included Maple Syrup and Butterscotch), spring 2015
  7. Too-Faced Peanut Butter and Jelly palette, spring 2016
  8. Physician's Formula Butter Bronzer, spring 2016
  9. Too-Faced Semi-Sweet Chocolate Bar palette, spring 2015
  10. Lunasol Melty Chocolat lip glosses, fall 2015
  11. Too-Faced Melted Chocolate liquid lipsticks, spring 2016
  12. Etude House Gingerbread Cookie Contour Maker, holiday 2015

So, my questions are why companies are continuing to produce food-scented makeup, why we're buying it, and the significance of these items.  There's the obvious need among makeup brands to offer novel products, plus the desire to capitalize on the success of foodie bath and body lines.  Food-scented makeup is a natural expansion of the dessert-scented beauty product craze.  There's also the tactic of engaging the sense of smell as well as sight (shiny makeup in pretty colors) and touch (texture is key when creating an attractive makeup product - people love dipping their fingers in testers).  Appealing to 3 senses instead of two might make consumers more likely to buy the product.  Why simply wear a buttery-soft, chocolate-colored eye shadow when your lids could also smell like it? 

More generally, I suppose the same basic reasoning behind the allure of dessert-smelling bath and body items applies to cosmetics.  I touched briefly on why women may want to smell like chocolate, cake or other food previously in this post and in the Sweet Tooth exhibition, and there have been plenty of news articles, but the most articulate and comprehensive exploration of the topic comes from Autumn of The Beheld.  Her points regarding dessert-inspired beauty products, such as the negative implications of marketing of sweet-smelling products to grown women and the remarkable appeal they continue to maintain, carry over to food-scented makeup.  She writes, "Foodie beauty products are designed to serve as a panacea for women today: Yes’m, in the world we’ve created you have fewer management opportunities, the state can hold court in your uterus, there’s no law granting paid maternal leave in the most powerful nation on the planet, and you’re eight times more likely to be killed by your spouse than you would be if you were a man, but don’t worry, ladies, there’s chocolate body wash!...[foodie products] do smell good, after all; that’s the whole point. And they trigger something that on its face seems harmless: Part of their appeal lies in how they transport us back to an age when all we needed to be soothed was a cupcake. At the same time, they don’t actually transport us to being that age; they transport us to a simulacrum of it."  Indeed, nostalgia can be a tricky thing to navigate in this context. As with kids-themed cosmetics from brands that primarily sell to adult women, the notion of foodie makeup could be seen as an infantilizing pacifier meant to placate and distract women from serious societal issues. 

Another aspect to consider is the advertising for these products.  Today's foodie makeup isn't advertised the same way as their predecessors, who suggest these products are a good way to snag a guy.  "Could you ask for a newer, cooler way to collect men?" asks the Cutex ad.  "Kiss him in his favorite flavor," says Yardley.  (Side note: the notion of making a guy think of his grandmother while kissing is really bizarre to me, and I'm not the only one.)  "Promise Roger your strawberry kisses," implores Maybelline.  Heck, the product is even named Kissing Potion!

While the insinuation of catching a man isn't present in the vast majority of contemporary makeup ads, the idea is still vaguely floating around when it comes to food-scented items.  A reviewer for Too-Faced Chocolate Soleil bronzer titles her review, "Even my boyfriend loves the smell."  And the model for Switch's Pink Brown mascara remarks, "You can feel the chocolate scent from my lushes! [sic]  And I love it when the scent flows as your face getting close to your boyfriend, like when kissing."  (The translation wasn't great but you get the gist.)  The notion of luring a guy with a scrumptious dessert scent certainly isn't unique to makeup, but it's slightly different.  Unlike bath and body products or perfumes, one has to be up close to get a whiff of a flavored balm or cocoa bronzer.

But this fact is also why one could argue that people who wear these items are only doing it for themselves, and that we may be reading too much into these: perhaps they really are just food-scented makeup and nothing more.  Like Autumn, ultimately I don't see anything wrong with enjoying makeup that smells like fruit or chocolate or any other food.  She notes, "[Sometimes] a candy cigar is just a candy cigar...I don’t want to imply that any of us should stop using lemon cookie body souffle or toss out our Lip Smackers—joy can be hard enough to come by plenty of days, and if it comes in a yummy-smelling jar, well, that’s reliable enough for me not to turn my nose up at, eh?"  Speaking from personal experience, I loved Benefit's Georgia - something about having my cheeks smell faintly like peach was incredibly fun - but I can tell you I didn't consider, not for a second, my then boyfriend's (now husband) reaction to how my face smelled.  At the moment I'm tempted by Too-Faced's Peanut Butter and Jelly palette because not only is the smiley pb & j face ridiculously cute, the palette is scented with peanuts.  That is a fragrance I haven't seen in eye shadow before; the sheer novelty of it brings a smile to my face.  I'm not even a palette person, but the idea of inhaling a light peanut aroma while applying eye shadow is the aspect that makes me want to buy it.  I imagine that for most women, it's not about getting close to a significant other, it's about the multi-sensory pleasure you experience when applying these products.  I'd say that given how subtle and ephemeral the scents in foodie makeup are, they're actually intended to be enjoyed at a personal, individual level rather than something to be shared.  As one reviewer for Revlon's Parfumerie nail polish notes, "It's funny because you forget about it, and then I guess I don't realize how many times a day I touch my face, because I keep getting a whiff of it, and each time I'm totally surprised!”  Overall, no matter what makeup companies have in mind when creating these products, I think it's okay to perceive them simply as brief, fleeting pick-me-ups rather than as ways to entrapping a man or treating grown woman like children.  Of course it's a subject worth questioning and we must continue to be mindful of how makeup is marketed, but no one should feel bad for liking chocolate-scented mascara or nail polish that smells like cookies.

What do you think?  Are you down with food-scented makeup?  This very unscientific 2008 poll says that people are fairly evenly divided on the subject, so I'm curious to hear your thoughts.

*Limited edition/discontinued


A brief history of faux freckles

At a recent trip to the dermatologist, I asked if there was any treatment that could lighten the freckles I have dotting my face.  Many of my formerly cute, small freckles are quickly becoming larger, unattractive splotches (a.k.a. "age spots") so I thought it would be better to nip them in the bud.  (Of course, I could just buy a bejeweled elephant brooch to distract from them.)  The experience jarred my memory of Lancôme releasing a "freckle pencil" many years ago that would allow one to paint one's face with as many specks as they wished.  With that, I thought I'd look into the history of freckles from a beauty standpoint, starting in the 20th century, with an emphasis on the rise of creating faux freckles with makeup.  I found  that, much like Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, they've been going in and out of style (but they're guaranteed to raise a smile).

From the late 19th through the early 20th century, freckles were seen as unsightly blemishes that needed to be banished from the complexion, as demonstrated by this Pond's Vanishing Cream ad from1910.

Ponds
(image from vintageadbrowser.com)

Some ads, like these for a potion known as Othine, were downright harsh - freckles are "homely" and shameful.  These are from 1914 and 1928.

Othine-1914-1928
(images from flickr.com and cosmeticsandskin.com

Perhaps the most well-known freckle antidote was Stillman's Freckle Cream.  Below are ads from 1925 and 1934.

Stillmans-1925-1934
(images from tothetwenties.blogspot.com and flickr.com)

Stillman's continued selling their freckle cream throughout the 20th century and, oddly enough, the company exists today (although they mostly sell an alternative lightening cream to the Middle Eastern market).  Here's an ad from 1956 and a picture of their contemporary freckle cream. 

Stillman-1956-today
(images from cosmeticsandskin.com and facebook.com)

I can't explain exactly how or why a shift occurred in the perception of freckles, but somewhere in the mid to late 20th century they became acceptable and even desirable (see this article for possible reasons).  Perhaps the rise of the tan's popularity was a factor - as early as the 1950s, tans correlated to health and a life of leisure, and a byproduct of spending quality time in the sun is the production of freckles.  By the '90s, freckles were also linked to a more youthful appearance, an association that continues over 20 years later. 

It seems that Chanel was the first company to market a product designed to create faux freckles.  Released in 1995, Le Crayon Rousseur was "part of Chanel's effort to gain a high-fashion profile," according to Chanel's then market development manager Timothy Walcot, who added that "the `little girl' look is quite in. This is intended as a bit of fun."  The instructions that came with the pencil recommended that it be used to "emphasize a light tan" as well. 

Indeed, freckles quickly became a symbol of a carefree summer spent lounging under the sun's rays, as this Lancôme ad from 1995 can attest.

Amber-Valetta-1995
(image from style.com)

Lancôme followed in Chanel's footsteps 8 years later by releasing a Freckle Crayon as part of their summer 2003 collection.  The mind behind the pencil, then artistic director Ross Burton, declared that "freckles are a symbol of freedom".  Instead of trying to hide their spots with several inches of caked-on foundation, women were encouraged to "free" themselves from makeup and embrace their natural skin.  And, of course, they were again associated with a summer vacation:  "The natural, sun-kissed look is set to be big for spring/summer,'' stated a Lancome beauty counter rep.  The company wasn't necessarily trailblazing - freckles had been "in" at least since 2001, when celebrities like Lucy Liu and top models Maggie Rizer and Devon Aoki proudly displayed their spots.

Sephora followed suit some time later, releasing a "My Lovelii Freckles" pencil as part of their now-defunct Piiink line.  In the spring of 2009, makeup artist Charlotte Tilbury used a MAC lip pencil to draw dots on the models' faces for Matthew Williamson's spring 2009 runway show.

MWilliamson-spring-2009
(image from style.com)

Each year since then, faux freckles made an appearance in at least one runway show.  Let's take a look at some examples.

A model right before Rachel Comey's spring 2010 show:

Rachel-comey-ss-2010
(image from lederniercri.it)

Chloe Fall 2011 (also by Charlotte Tilbury):

Chloe-fall-2011-tilbury2
(images from style.com)

The trend grew by 2012, where faux freckles dotted the faces of models at the spring shows for Jeremy Scott, Dsquared, Emmanuel Ungaro, D&G, and Donna Karan. 

Donna Karan, where Tilbury struck again. 

Donna-Karan-spring-2012-2
(images from elle.com)

Dsquared and Emmanuel Ungaro:

Dsquared2-ungaro-2012-spring
(images from makeupforlife.net and beautyeditor.ca)

Jeremy Scott:

Jeremy-Scott-2012
(image from beautylish.tumblr.com)

D&G:

DG-spring-2012-mcgrath
(images from foros.vogue.es)

By 2013, freckles had firmly established their role as an anti-aging strategy.  "According to makeup pro Ruth Crilly, the easiest way to keep your youthful visage is to fake a few freckles," states an article at Refinery29.  Adds Pixiwoo.com makeup artist Sam Chapman, "There’s something youthful and fresh about freckles."  The spring 2013 shows further cemented the trend, with freckles proving especially popular at London Fashion Week (where, notably, Tilbury referred to the MAC pencil she uses to create the freckles as a "youth stick".)

Kinder Aggugini:

Kinder-Aggugini-spring-2013-freckles
(images from elle.com)

Antonio Berardi (the makeup was done by Gucci Westman, who also allegedly painted on fake freckles for both Rag & Bone's spring 2012 and 2013 shows - however, the models' complexions looked totally clear in the pictures I found.)

Antonio-berardi-spring-2013
(images from fashionising.com)

Moschino Cheap and Chic:

Moschino-beauty-spring-2013-freckles
(images from fashionising.com)

Holly Fulton:

Holly-fulton-beauty-spring-2013
(images from makeupforlife.net and thelookbookphilosophy.com)

Pucci Fall 2013:

Emilio-pucci-beauty-fall-2013
(images from fashionising.com)

Lisa Perry Fall 2013 - makeup by Westman (I'm beginning to think both she and Tilbury are a little obsessed with freckles!):

Lisa-Perry-fall-2013
(image from socialvixen.com)

However, the addition of faux freckles isn't solely to give a youthful touch.  At many shows, fake spots served an additional purpose:  giving the overall look a retro twist.  Tilbury cited the styles of Anita Pallenberg and Charlotte Rampling for the slightly '70s look she created at Chloe's fall 2011 show.  For the 2012 D&G show, Pat McGrath said her inspiration came from a '60s style icon:  "The look is all about the girls looking beautiful. We were looking at photos of Talitha Getty...the way she looks with the beautiful eyebrows and the freckles and fabulous eyes and we've done a very modern, fresh version of that."  And MAC makeup artist Andrew Gallimore created a “cool California L.A. 50’s girl with a toasted tan, summer freckles, and a sunblock-neon lip” for Holly Fulton's spring 2013 show.

Meanwhile, Westman referred to several '90s types for her work at various spring 2013 shows.  For Antonio Berardi, she says, "The Antonio Berardi girl is sporty, very clean and fresh...a girl reminiscent of a 90s Helmut Lang girl...we used Brown ColorStay Eyeliner to add freckles which gave the girls a youthful look."  For Rag and Bone, she was inspired by "the iconic supermodels of the 90’s and the great structure of their brows."  She adds, "I kept the makeup very pure, adding just a touch of natural flush to the lips by mixing two lip products together, and I used a brow pencil to create subtle freckles and a dramatic brow to top the whole look off.”  Finally, for Lisa Perry, Westman went further back in time to the '60s: - "I focused on the eyes and went for something retro...I kept the skin simple and natural and created subtle freckles on the nose with a nude pencil."

Despite the popularity of freckles on the runway, there has been some ambivalence in the beauty community as to whether it translates to the real world.  While in May 2013 Refinery29 was touting freckles' seemingly miraculous anti-aging properties, just a year and a half prior they were asking their readers whether they'd embrace the trendThe Gloss asked whether it was even appropriate to try to poach something that occurs naturally in many peoples' skin.  Says the author, "This trend reminds me of my redheaded high school friend who despised bottle redheads, or my glasses-wearing friend’s rancor towards people who wore prescription-less glasses."  As of spring 2013, The Gloss is definitively in the no-fake-freckle camp

Additionally, the fact that makeup companies have not recently seized the opportunity to cash in and re-introduce freckle pencils might point to a dislike of, or perhaps disinterest in, the fake freckle trend.  The lack of freckle pencils on the market could also be in part the result of Tilbury's and Westman's divulgence of the exact products they use to create a speckled effect, which already exist - it would be difficult to convince people to buy a new, specialized product when they can already buy something that would give the same look.  Similarly, there's a wealth of tutorials on how to draw fake freckles using a variety of products, from eyebrow pencils to self-tanner painted on with a tiny brush.

My final thoughts:  Personally, I'm indifferent to natural freckles.  Some people have them, some don't, and I don't think people are more or less attractive because of them.  I never really noticed mine, even, until Lancôme came out with that pencil!  Now that they're getting bigger and starting to take over my face due to ever-advancing age, I'm more aware of them, but overall they're just another part of one's face.  My indifference to real freckles means that I do find it strange that people would want to fake them, as I don't see them as a beauty trend one way or the other.  They just...exist.  Still, the makeup junkie in me can understand fake freckles - theoretically, it's not really much different than partaking in other makeup application.  Why does anyone wear blue eyeshadow or paint their nails?

What do you think of both naturally-occuring freckles and the drawn-on ones seen on the runways?  And what do you think caused the shift in the past 100 years from their perception as ugly blemishes to indicators of youth?  Have you ever or would you paint on some fake specks?


Guest blogging!

No posts for this week and no Curator's Corner today, but I'm pleased to announce that Ada Calhoun, one of the authors behind the awesome 90swoman.com blog, asked me to write a piece on 90s womanhood!!  I was so honored.  Naturally my thoughts went to makeup and 90s beauty trends.  And also naturally, I was extremely long-winded so the piece was edited ever so slightly so as not to bore readers.  However, I have no issue with boring my own readers (all 2 of them, ha), so here it is in its entirety.  Enjoy!  And do check out 90swoman.com, even if you're not of that generation - it's truly a fascinating look at the era.  :)  Thanks again, Ada!

Uma_thurman
Uma Thurman rocking Chanel Vamp nail polish in 1994's Pulp Fiction. 
(image from movieretriever.com)

Matte brown lipstick.  Heroin chic.  White eye shadow.  The grunge look.  These were the major beauty trends of the 90s.  And they’ve been earning the attention of the fashion and beauty world in the past year or so.  In January 2010 Selfridges staged an in-store exhibition devoted to the 90s, complete with a vintage M.A.C. Cosmetics face chart showcasing their (at the time) wildly popular brown lip liner named, appropriately enough, Twig.  Fashion and beauty bloggers have also been covering the revival of the decade’s trends.  “Messy plaids, patchwork and the overall look of 90’s grunge is back for Fall 2010, and we aren’t just talking about the fashion.  The beauty industry is taking its cue from the Courtney Love days of dark, red lipstick paired with overdone, smoky eye make-up…A disheveled plaid tee layered under a floral dress and dirty boots are the perfect balance with a dramatic ‘I don’t care’ make-up look,” wrote Jessica Ciarla at The Fashion Spot.  Last summer beauty blog Lovelyish provided a nostalgic look at 90s makeup trends.  This year, fashion blog Refinery29 reports that the “sleeper hit” of summer 2011 is 90s grunge lip color:  “Even though summer is currently awash in happy, vivid corals and pinks, there's another lip trend we've been tracking, too: A modern version of grunge-inspired lips. Mixing deep magenta-red with a little shimmer, they're like the love child of a '90s era Drew Barrymore and Married with Children's Kelly Bundy… pair your tribute-to-the-nineties lip with extra dark brows and matte skin. So angst-y!”  Finally, retailer Urban Outfitters named Cher from 1995’s Clueless their latest beauty icon.

Fashion trends, and by extension, beauty trends, are cyclical – usually about 20 years after the initial phenomenon began, it becomes in vogue once again and is slightly updated.  So it’s not surprising that the 90s are making a comeback now.    

But the point I want to make isn’t that the 90s are back fashion and makeup-wise.  Rather, I want to take a look at the transformation the beauty industry underwent in the 90s as a direct response to the new notions women had about makeup.  In 1995, the L.A. Times quoted a beauty newsletter editor as saying, "The creativity the department stores had 10 years ago doesn't exist today…the top five brands control 75% of the makeup business."  Something had to give to meet the beauty needs of the 90s woman, and it did.

Between the influence of “lipstick feminism”*, Naomi Wolf’s The Beauty Myth, Riot Grrrl (and “girl power”, its co-opted, commercialized, mainstream offshoot made popular by the Spice Girls), and the smeared red lipstick of grunge poster child Courtney Love, more and more 90s women began wearing makeup not with the simplistic goal of looking pretty, but rather as a means of self-expression and empowerment.  They also didn’t want to feel as though they were being brainwashed by cosmetic companies telling them that they wouldn’t be beautiful without makeup – wearing it had to be their decision alone, and they would wear it (or not) on their own terms.  This outlook represented a huge shift in thinking about cosmetics, and beauty and business gurus pounced on it. 

In 1994 makeup artist Jeannine Lobell created a makeup line called Stila.  The name coming from the Italian word “stilare”, which means “to pen”, Lobell believed every woman’s makeup should be as unique as her signature.  The cardboard containers (this environmentally-friendly packaging was a breakthrough at the time) also displayed quotes from famous women that could be seen as empowering:  Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s “The best protection any woman can have is courage,” and "Failure is impossible" by Susan B. Anthony are just a few of the quotes that made an appearance on Stila’s eye shadows.  These marketing strategies encouraged the idea that women could let their individuality shine through their makeup, and that it could even make them feel powerful.

1995 and 1996 saw the introduction of “alternative” makeup lines Hard Candy and Urban Decay, respectively.  Both got their start by introducing non-traditional nail polish colors that the founders first mixed themselves – Sky, a pastel blue, in the case of Hard Candy, and a purple color from Urban Decay.  And both were revolutionizing the beauty industry and filling in the gaps left by mainstream cosmetic companies by offering non-traditional hues.  From the Urban Decay website:  “Heaven forbid you wanted purple or green nails, because you’d either have to whip out a marker, or risk life and limb with that back alley drugstore junk…The first magazine ad [for Urban Decay] queried ‘Does Pink Make You Puke?,’ fueling the revolution as cosmetics industry executives scrambled to keep up.” 

A 1998 New York Times profile of Hard Candy founder Dineh Mohajer, states that she was a leader in providing the modern teenage girl with the daring makeup she wanted to use to express herself.  “Ms. Mohajer's timing couldn't have been better: young women were ready for hard-edged, ‘ugly’ colors, which were a departure from the powdery, harmless pinks that once accompanied every American girl's journey to womanhood. Suddenly, blue lips, blue hair and blue fingernails became a statement about independence -- even if independence might make you look as if you were suffering from frostbite.”  Still, in the article Mohajer insists that ''I didn't make that first batch of blue nail polish so I could stand up to men or be outrageous…or so I could make some sort of stand for women.”  She continues:  “[what] it's really about is self-esteem, women being able to do whatever they want and look stylish and attractive and cute at the same time.”  Mohajer, who was all of 22 when she founded Hard Candy, clearly represented the new way in which women were viewing makeup.

The decade culminated in the 1999 release of celebrity makeup artist Kevyn Aucoin’s iconic book Making Faces.  The book offered details of makeovers performed on “real” women, and provided step-by-step instructions to create a myriad of looks.  Women could essentially try on personalities like “The Diva” or “The Siren” through makeup.  Aucoin writes in the introduction, “…it is my hope that you will find yourself, or rather, your selves inside.”  His book was illustrative of the sweeping change that took hold in both the general population’s notion of cosmetics and the beauty industry.

Where does all of this leave us now?  I’m of the opinion that if you asked teenagers and women today, most would say they don’t wear makeup for anyone but themselves.  Personally I wear it because it makes me happy and because I think it’s fun to play with color, not because I feel as though I have put on my “face” before going out in public.  While I can’t know for sure what other women think, I have a feeling most of my generation and younger generations share this perspective.  That is one of the indisputable legacies of the 90s.

So, girls and women of today, bear in mind that your perception of cosmetics is in some way descended from ground-breaking beauty philosophies that were set in motion some 20 years ago.  The notions that makeup can be a creative outlet and a way to express your individuality were forged back then.  And if you’re a true 90s woman, relish the current comeback of makeup trends from your decade…everything except the matte brown lipstick. 

*The debate between lipstick feminists and second-wave feminists is far too broad to discuss in this post.  I’m leaving out the argument as to whether women should or shouldn’t be participating in beauty rituals; I’m only mentioning lipstick feminism as one of the many reasons for the change in women’s perception of wearing makeup in the 90s.