Art history

Republic Nail's homage to Frida Kahlo: ¡Viva la vida!

"At the end of the day, we can endure much more than we think we can." - Frida Kahlo

Republic Nail Frida Kahlo

I became obsessed with tracking down a collection of nail polishes and lipsticks featuring Frida Kahlo after Karen at Makeup and Beauty Blog posted about them back in December.  After having no luck finding them in Baltimore, on December 23, 2016, while visiting my family in Pennsylvania, I was granted an early Christmas miracle and came across them at a CVS near my sister's house.  Needless to say I was over the moon, since this collection is exactly the kind of thing the Museum was meant for.  While I still haven't been able to get my hands on all of the designs, I'm happy with what I did find.  :)

I've said before with other major artists that it's beyond the scope of my humble little blog to write a very long essay about the artist's work/biography, especially given the staggering amount of resources on Kahlo - everything from films to exhibitions on her fashion and personal possessions to her diary have been made available - but I at least want to give a brief summary for those not so familiar with her.  Frida Kahlo (1907-1954) was a Mexican artist who is best known for her self-portraits, which expressed her tumultuous life and impassioned personality.  "I paint self-portraits because I am so often alone, because I am the person I know best," one of her most famous quotes explains.  To say that she had not been dealt an easy hand in life would be an understatement.  After surviving polio at the age of 6, at 18 she suffered a terrible bus accident that nearly killed her and left her in constant pain for the rest of her life despite over a dozen surgeries to help her heal.  This is to say nothing of her turbulent marriage to (and subsequent divorce from and remarriage to) fellow artist Diego Rivera, or the fact that she badly desired children and ended up with 3 near-fatal miscarriages instead.  While Kahlo's paintings are a direct reflection of the trauma she endured, I also believe she channeled her emotional and physical pain into her art rather than letting it consume her spirit. In looking at her paintings, you clearly see her pain but also fierce will and determination to keep going.  She was a fighter who approached everything in life with a ferocious intensity, which is especially apparent in some personal details.  For example, towards the end of her life she was bedridden from chronic pain but attended the opening of her first solo exhibition, arriving in an ambulance.  And I love this photo of her in bed, still painting away. 

Frida Kahlo painting

In the year before her death, she also lost of most of her right leg to gangrene yet created a work of art from her prosthetic.

Frida Kahlo prosthetic
(image from collectorsweekly.com

It's these incredible displays of strength, I think, that make Kahlo such a fascinating and enduring icon. 

Now let's get to the beauty collection, shall we?  I wasn't familiar with Republic Nail before now, but it looks like they released this collection sometime in the summer of 2016.  I was only able to find 5 of the 12 designs, but I figured I'd discuss each one anyway and compare the designs to Kahlo's work and photos.  First up are the ones that I was able to buy. 

Republic Nail Frida Kahlo lipstick and nail polish

I'm fairly certain the image of Kahlo comes from this 1939 photo taken by fashion/commercial photographer Nickolas Muray, Kahlo's lover and close friend, who photographed over 40 portraits of the artist. "Viva La Vida" is a title of one of Kahlo's paintings.

Frida Kahlo, 1939
(image from nickolasmuray.com)

This design also borrows a portrait of Kahlo by Muray but combines one of her best-known works.

Republic Nail Frida Kahlo lipstick and nail polish

Frida Kahlo, ca. 1938
(image from nickolasmuray.com)

Besides the above design, others in the Republic Nail collection feature images of hummingbirds, most likely inspired from this 1940 self-portrait.  Hayden Herrera, one of the most prominent Kahlo scholars, explores the possible meanings behind the painting's hummingbird in her excellent book Frida Kahlo: The Paintings: "Hanging from the thorn necklace is a dead hummingbird, whose outstretched wings echo Frida's joined eyebrows.  The bird must point to Frida's feeling of being cut down in flight or to her rejection by Diego:  in Mexican folk tradition dead hummingbirds were used as charms to bring luck in love.  In Aztec mythology the hummingbird symbolized reincarnation - the spirits of dead warriors returned in the form of hummingbirds.  In Christian symbolism birds in general stand for the winged soul.  Given the religious atmosphere of this painting, in which Frida looks as solemn as a Pantocrator, the bird might also refer to the Holy Ghost." (p. 142).  Interesingly, other artists such as Ashley Longshore (whom I featured at the Museum for Clé de Peau's holiday 2016 collection), have also depicted Kahlo with hummingbirds.

Frida Kahlo, Self-Portrait, 1940

This design is a copy of Kahlo's "Wounded Deer" from 1946.

Republic Nail Frida Kahlo lipstick and nail polish

There's a lot going on in this painting and I'm too lazy to rehash it all, so if you're curious you can check out a good explanation here.

Frida Kahlo, The Wounded Deer, 1946

More hummingbirds (I think).

Republic Nail Frida Kahlo lipstick and nail polish

As far as I know Kahlo never painted herself in Day of the Dead makeup; however, sugar skulls and skeletons figured prominently in her work.  During her recovery from the bus accident in 1925, "she dressed papier-mache skeletons in her own clothes and hung them from her bed's canopy so that they jostled in the wind.  One of her favorite possessions was a sugar skull of the type that children eat on the Day of the Dead.  Frida ordered the skull to be made with her own name written in bold letters on its forehead." (Herrera, p. 36) 

Republic Nail Frida Kahlo lipstick and nail polish

Physically Kahlo never fully recovered from the accident, and suffered numerous other ailments afterwards.  Death never seemed far away, hence the frequent references to it in her work.

Frida Kahlo, Girl with Death Mask, 1938

Frida Kahlo, Four Inhabitants of Mexico, 1938

Frida Kahlo, The Dream, 1940

Frida Kahlo, Thinking of Death, 1943

The sugar skull with her name on it makes an appearance in this very sad work from 1945.

Frida Kahlo, Without Hope, 1945

While the sugar skull design on the polish refers to Kahlo's more macabre works, I liked the inclusion of the hand-shaped earrings.  These were a gift to Kahlo from Picasso.  She wore them frequently, even for two of her self-portraits.  They appear in black on the Republic Nail items, but they look to be ivory or shell in Kahlo's versions.  (There are tons of imitations available for sale too, if you're so inclined.)

Republic Nail Frida Kahlo lipstick

Republic Nail Frida Kahlo nail polish

Frida Kahlo, ca. 1939
(image from nickolasmuray.com)

Frida Kahlo, Self Portrait Dedicated to Dr. Eloesser, 1940

Here's the other portrait with the earrings.  I found this in another book I purchased for research for this post, Martha Zamora's highly acclaimed Frida Kahlo: The Brush of Anguish.

Frida Kahlo, Self-Portrait Dedicated to Dr. Marte R. Gomez, 1946

Now for the Republic Nail items I couldn't find.  I'm only showing the nail polishes here but the same designs appeared on lipstick cases.

These four aren't quite so inspired, just more of the same motifs we've seen.  I do appreciate the little monkey on the cap of the polish second from the left below.  Kahlo liked monkeys, keeping them as surrogate children (along with a host of other animals) and incorporating them into her portraits.

Republic Nail Frida Kahlo polishes

Another animal she was fond of was the parrot.  The one on the nail polish looks similar to one that appears in a 1951 still life. 

Republic Nail Frida Kahlo polish

Frida Kahlo, Still Life with Parrot, 1951

The design on this one refers to a painting from 1944, one of the more devastating representations of Kahlo's physical trauma.

Republic Nail Frida Kahlo polish

The Broken Column was painted during a 5-month period when Kahlo was encased in a steel corset to heal her back.  She wrote to her doctor, "I got a little better with the corset but now I feel just as sick again, and I am now very desperate because I do not see anything that improves the condition of my spine." (Herrera, p. 182)  Unable to move and in pain, she stares out at the viewer tearfully yet stoically.  The painting also includes clear sexual overtones given that the artist depicts herself topless and penetrated by a rather phallic column.

Frida Kahlo, The Broken Column, 1944

The banner wrapped around the column on the nail polish bottle's design appeared in several works, such as this wedding portrait.  The inscription on the banner reads, "Here you see us, me Frida Kahlo, with my beloved husband Diego Rivera.  I painted these portraits in the beautiful city of San Francisco California for our friend Mr. Albert Bender, and it was in the month of April of the year 1931."

Frida Kahlo, Frida and Diego Rivera, 1931

The banner also appeared in the 1940 self-portrait with the hand earrings shown above, along with this rather disturbing work.

Finally, we have a heart pierced with a sword.  As with the previous depiction of Kahlo in Day of the Dead makeup, I don't think this specific motif ever appeared in her paintings, but there were a few featuring hearts.

Republic Nail Frida Kahlo polish

Or perhaps it's a reference to Memory, the Heart:

Frida Kahlo, Memory, the Heart
(images from republicnailusa.com and fridakahlo.org)

Naturally I was curious to know how Republic Nail was able to use these images.  I did a little digging and saw that the designs are licensed by a company called Ask Art Agency through the Frida Kahlo Corporation.  I don't understand the exact legal ins and outs, but I guess once the corporation grants a company the rights to use Kahlo's works, they can design whatever they want. The same designs from the Republic Nail line were also used for a line of phone cases produced by Ask Art Agency, and Korean cosmetics company Missha has just debuted 4 cushion compacts with similar designs.  Given that the tag line "Pasión Por La Vida" is featured on the cases and at Ask Art Agency's website section on their Kahlo license, I'm assuming they're also behind the Missha collection.

Missha x Frida Kahlo

Missha x Frida Kahlo
(images from vutydesign.com)

The Frida Kahlo Corporation, meanwhile, seems very eager to grant licenses to use Kahlo's likeness and paintings.  Founded by Kahlo's niece, the corporation has issued licenses for the artist's work to appear on everything from sneakers to planners to an upcoming line of hotels.  The company's Twitter feed, with the constant references to Frida Kahlo branded tequila and other items, makes me think it's a rather unscrupulous money grab forged by greedy relatives.  Indeed, while many Frida fans were overjoyed to see her images used for a beauty collection, there were a handful of killjoys detractors on Twitter lamenting the "crass" nature of putting Kahlo's work on cosmetics, especially seeing as how Kahlo was a communist.  Having said all this, my personal opinion, and this is obviously pure speculation, is that Kahlo would have been delighted to see her paintings and likeness on this particular beauty collection.  For starters, Republic Nail is a Mexico-based company, which I think Kahlo would be pleased to support.  As for the anti-capitalist sentiment, Republic Nail is an affordable drugstore line, which at least aligns better with Kahlo's communist politics than a high-end department store line.  Finally, Kahlo herself enjoyed beauty products, as evidenced by these nail polishes that were revealed when her wardrobe was finally able to be opened to the public, along with a lipstick-kissed love note to Muray. 

Frida Kahlo's nail polish

Frida-kahlo-love-letter
(images from theguardian.com)

I'm not sure how she would have felt about her face appearing on things like mouse pads, or even the Missha collection, but I think she would have been supportive of the Republic Nail lineup.  The only thing I could see Kahlo questioning would be the particular images used - I could see her being very opinionated on which photos of her and which paintings should be included, as well as the color selection itself.  I also think she might be adamant that her actual work appears rather than the amalgams created by the licensing company.  They seemed to be prettied-up versions with none of the visceral edge that we associate with Kahlo, and for that they lose some of their impact.  But I guess the original works may have been too gruesome/depressing for commercial use?  Powerful though Kahlo's paintings are, they are admittedly difficult to look at, and I'm not sure if I'd want to be confronted with her suffering as I'm painting my nails.  Using some original pieces by an artist, like, say, Andy Warhol is entirely different.  So perhaps watered-down designs for Kahlo's works are a good thing since they celebrate her art and spirit but aren't too heavy...as you can see, I'm a bit conflicted.  On the one hand I think Kahlo would have liked to see her work being used on items that help women express themselves, and I'm happy to see a beauty collection pay homage to her.  (This opens up the bigger issue of artists putting their work on everyday items, which I discussed in my Shu/Murakami post a while back - I'm firmly of the opinion that these collaborations are worthwhile overall since it allows one to have a little taste of the artist's work if you can't afford the real thing.)  On the other hand, I probably would have liked the collection more if they used more sophisticated designs rather than the somewhat bland ones used by the licensing agency, which remind me of old school tattoos.  I also would have liked it more if they were restricted to one cosmetics company rather than being used by another brand - it would be more special if it was just a one-off collection. 

What do you think about all this?   


Letting the sunshine in with Dolce & Gabbana's Sicilian Bronzer

Sooooooo glad I was able to snag this Dolce & Gabbana bronzer!  As of right now it's sold out everywhere in the U.S. and going for double the retail price on ebay, which I find to be pretty obnoxious.  (It's still available at Harrod's but shipping to the U.S. is steep.) In any case, the colorful design is borrowed from part of D & G's spring/summer 2016 fashion collection, which in turn is based on traditional Sicilian "carrettos" - handmade donkey carts.

I really can't stop staring at it.  So many details!

Dolce & Gabbana summer 2016 bronzer

Dolce & Gabbana The Sicilian Bronzer - summer 2016

Dolce & Gabbana The Sicilian Bronzer - summer 2016

Dolce & Gabbana The Sicilian Bronzer - summer 2016

A closeup of our little lady friend:

Dolce & Gabbana The Sicilian Bronzer - summer 2016

Here's the bronzer itself, in case you're curious about the shade.  It's #30 (Sunshine).

Dolce & Gabbana The Sicilian Bronzer - summer 2016

A few of the carretto collection pieces made it onto the D & G runway.

Dolce & Gabbana spring/summer 2016
(images from vogue.co.uk)

But at their website you can see the entire collection, which is way bigger than I thought it would be.  Some of my favorite pieces:

Dolce & Gabbana spring/summer 2016 carretto

Dolce & Gabbana spring/summer 2016 - carretto

Dolce & Gabbana spring/summer 2016 - carretto(images from dolcegabbana.com)

What I loved is that D & G presented a great history of the carretto, so you can tell it was definitely a well thought-out collection.  I don't want to rehash the whole thing, but basically these carts were in use at least as far back as the early 19th century, and typically utilized to transport everyday items like lumber, grains, lemons and wine barrels.  The custom of painting these carts stemmed from several things: a practical solution to help protect the wood from damage, superstition (most carts were adorned with religious figures), and, if they were commercial carts, a way to advertise.  Styles varied from town to town, but all shared bright, vibrant color and patterns. 

Sicilian carretto - wheel(image from wikipedia)

I think I spy mermaids on each side of this one!

Sicilian carretto detail

Sicilian carretto(images from slowitaly.yourguidetoitaly.com)

Nowadays the carts aren't used for anything but tourist attractions, but I'm glad some artisans are still painting and keeping the tradition alive.  (You can also check out this site for another brief history.) 

Sicilian carretto(image from wikipedia)

D & G's passion for Sicily's culture is, as with their coin palettes, made abundantly clear in their description of the carts - I actually found it to be the most informative piece in my online search.  I also appreciated that it's a new spin on an old theme; this is not the first time the company has used the carretto as inspiration.

As we look at some more cart photos, you can see the resemblance between them and D & G's adaptation.  Some of the bags, for example, are  high-fashion versions of traditional Sicilian coffa bags, which typically share their pompom decorations with the horses that pull the carts.  The influence also spread to a pair of flat sandals.

Sicilian carretto
(image from slowitaly.yourguidetoitaly.com)

Dolce & Gabbana spring/summer 2016

Dolce & Gabbana spring/summer 2016(images from vogue.co.uk)

Meanwhile, the carved figures on the wheel spokes and other areas served as inspiration for the heels. I just wish they had worked in a mermaid somehow!

Carretto wheel / D & G shoes(images from academia.edu and dolcegabbana.com)

D & G's decorative patterns overall look like the interiors and side panels of the carts.  Check out these examples from the Museo Carretto Siciliano in Palermo (yes, there is an entire museum devoted to these carts - actually, there's also a second one!)

Sicilian cart museum

Sicilian cart museum

Sicilian cart museum(images from tripadvisor.com)

The knights refer to those in Sicilian puppet theater.  Sicily apparently has a medieval/chivalry-themed folk tradition, according to this book, so the theaters and carts share the motif as they are both part of the same history.

Dolce & Gabbana spring/summer 2016 - carretto
(image from dolcegabbana.com)

Sicily-puppet-knights(image from grandvoyageitaly.com)

As for the little lady in the center of the bronzer, I'm guessing she's some sort of a queen based on this photo of the Puppet Theatre.  I spy a queen on the left with a crown and red dress, just like the one on the D & G pattern.

Sicilian Puppet Theatre(image from gettyimages.com)

Incidentally, for the holidays D & G expanded the carretto line to Christmas ornaments, candles, stationery and more recently (and most astonishingly) a collection of 100 hand-painted Smeg refrigerators completed by 8 genuine Sicilian cart artists.  That would add quite a pop to your kitchen!

Dolce & Gabbana carretto refrigerator(image from wallpaper.com)

Dolce & Gabbana carretto refrigerators(image from 2modern.com)

Overall, I am seriously in love with this bronzer.  I always enjoy learning, especially through makeup, about some cultural practice or artist that I wasn't aware of previously.  Plus, so few couture houses' makeup have such a specific connection to their fashion - in the case of Chanel and Dior, it seems rather vague and uninspired as of late, and don't get me started on YSL - their Chinese New Year palettes were not a full comeback.  D & G goes the extra mile to ensure that the makeup collection aligns with the clothes.  (Although I do find it odd that they used the carretto as a springboard for the makeup line, but the model for the beauty collection's promos is wearing the lemon print, also from D & G's summer collection.  Why not wear something from the carretto collection?  Eh, I guess it's not important.)  More than that, the original culture behind the fashion itself appears to be at least somewhat researched.  This is what gets me excited - to see aspects of a particular culture that are celebrated and modernized, and that the designer takes care to explain the history behind their designs.  It's a stark contrast to, ahem, other approaches.

So what do you think of this bronzer and D & G's take on carretto style?


La plus belle à l'unanimité: Madame Récamier, 18th/19th-century beauty icon

Once again I stumbled across something very interesting but also completely unrelated to what I had been searching for.  In this case, it was an 1890's ad for Harriet Hubbard Ayer's Récamier Cream.  I was intrigued by it since it reminded me of a painting that I had looked at in my art history days in college, but couldn't quite place it. 

Harriet Hubbard Ayer Recamier Cream, ca. 1890s

Fortunately, Cosmetics and Skin refreshed my memory.  The image for Ayer's ad was taken from this 1802 painting of Madame (Juliette) Récamier by François Gerard.

Juliette Récamier by Francois Gerard, 1802
(image from carnavalet.paris.fr)

Known for her great beauty, graciousness and tact, Madame Récamier was the Napoleonic era's "it girl", ruling French society from the late 1700s until her death in 1849.  New York-based entrepreneur Harriet Hubbard Ayer saw an opportunity to capitalize on her beauty approximately 40 years after her passing.  This is the summary of the skincare line's origins from Cosmetics and Skin:  "In 1886, Harriet Hubbard Ayer founded the Recamier Manufacturing Company at 25 Union Square, New York. Incorporated in 1887, the company’s product range addressed most of the beauty concerns of the day. The cosmetics were restricted to skin-care and did not include decorative products such as rouge or lipstick – these were still considered to be ‘paints’ and therefore unsuitable for general use in polite society. The company therefore produced, marketed and sold ‘toilet preparations’ rather than ‘cosmetics’...The recipes for her skin care products were claimed by Harriet to have come from a French countess said to be a descendant of Madame Jeanne Françoise Julie Adélaïde Récamier, a well known beauty from Napoleonic times. The recipes that Madame Récamier’s used had supposedly been handed-down to the countess and she sold copies to Harriet. The concoction of this story was a great marketing idea by Harriet as it gave her company a name, a visible symbol of beauty, and some supposed ‘beauty secrets’ from France, the centre of fashion and beauty at the time.  Another version of the story states that on a trip to Paris, Harriet visited a certain M. Mirault who made the Parma Violet Perfume she used. M. Mirault had a formula for a skin salve his grandfather had made for Julie de Récamier and he sold it to Harriet for a ‘tremendous price’.  A third explanation for the origins of the cream came in 1889 when Harriet was sued by Lutie Frenzel. Lutie suggested that the French-made cream had been analyzed by a New York chemist and subsequently copied."  That's the story in a nutshell, but there's also quite a thorough history of Ayer's use of Madame Récamier's name and reputation to sell skincare in Annette Blaugrund's wonderful biography of Ayer, "Dispensing Beauty in New York and Beyond: The Triumphs and Tragedies of Harriet Hubbard Ayer" (which I have just added to my book wishlist!)

Anyway, as you can see from the ads below, the Récamier line encompassed a variety of products, from balm and cream to powder and soap.  There was even a lotion designed remove "moths [moth patches] and freckles".

Ayer Récamier ads, 1887 and 1890

Ayer Récamier ads, 1891 and 1893

Ayer Récamier ads, 1895(images from cosmeticsandskin.com)

What I'm curious about is how Madame Récamier established her reputation as a legendary beauty and the most charming, courteous socialite of her time. Was she really that gorgeous, her skin that flawless?  What was it about Madame Récamier that resulted in an enterprising beauty mogul essentially exploiting her name to sell skincare nearly 40 years after her death?  I just had to find out more about this woman's mystique.  Here are some historical accounts.

From "Madame Récamier: With a Sketch of the History of Society in France" (1862), p. 11:

"It is probable that the keen appetite for all social enjoyment, sharpened by the long privation caused by terror, war, and famine, much increased the effect that Madame Récamier's beauty produced.  The few survivors from those days can scarcely find words to express the rapture she excited in a large and mixed public.  By the revolution all distinctions of rank had been not only abolished but forgotten; every one pushed on pell-mell to see the beauty; and some few remember being half crushed to death in the Tuileries by the suburban crowds who would have a look at her." 

From "The Memoirs of the Duchess of Abrantes" in The Atheneum (1832), vol. 31, p. 391:

"She was a compound of ingenuous gracefulness, talent and goodness, harmonized by that delicacy which alone forms the charm of loveliness.  I have often discovered a resemblance between her and the Madonnas of the pious Italian painters; but this resemblance was purely intellectual.  It proceeded not from regularity of features, but from that soul which animated her eyes and beamed forth from under her long eye-lashes, and from the high and intellectual forehead, blushing under its fillet of leno, the only head-dress with which, for many years, she set off the charms of her countenance.  In the smile which so often separates her lips of rose, you might perceive the innocent joy of a young and ravishing creature, happy to please and be loved - who saw nothing but bliss in nature, and answered the salutation of love which met her on all sides, by an expression of silent benevolence...in England Madame Récamier encountered the same enthusiasm.  There was always a crowd wherever she passed.  The charm, whose power I have before expressed, has the same magic influence among all nations."

My favorite description comes from "The New Monthly Magazine" (1859), p. 455:

"She was at once graceful and exquisitely modelled, her neck was admirable in form and proportion, her mouth small and vermilion, her teeth pearly, her arms charming, albeit somewhat spare, her chestnut hair curled naturally, her nose was delicate and regular, especially French...her walk was that of a goddess on the clouds.  Such was Madame Récamier at eighteen years of age.  The appearance of a young person so pre-eminently beautiful in public caused, as may be imagined, a prodigious sensation...she was declared la plus belle à l'unanimité."

After reading these I decided I wanted more visuals since, as they say, the proof is in the pudding (or in this case, the portrait.)  While some portraits depict idealized representations of their sitters, I think these give a fairly realistic picture of Madame Récamier.  We'll start with a close-up from the Gerard portrait.  Rather lovely, yes?

detail - Madame Recamier by Gerard

Here she is in 1807, painted by Firmin Massot:

Juliette Récamier by Massot, 1807(image from gogmsite.net)

Back in time to a portrait painted around 1798:

Madame Récamier by Eulalie Morin, ca. 1798(image from flickr.com)

And of course, we can't forget Jacques-Louis David's iconic portrait of Madame Récamier, which inspired both a sofa style and a rather unsettling Surrealist work by Magritte.  (Interestingly, this is an unfinished portrait.  Madame Récamier had commissioned David to paint her portrait, but after finding that he worked too slowly for her taste, she had David's pupil Gerard to repaint the portrait.)

Madame Récamier by David, 1800

Given all we've seen and read, I think if I had existed in Ayer's time, I would have bought the Récamier cream in a heartbeat if it meant even approximating her skin.  Alas, the claims for Ayer's skin "preparations" were debunked by the Boston Journal of Health in 1902.  There were even accusations of harmful ingredients such as "corrosive sublimate," which was made from mercury.

Despite the fact that Ayer's Récamier line fizzled out by 1920, the original Madame Récamier continues to inspire today.  Take, for example, the moody, slightly goth twist on the lady's look at Kinder Aggugini's spring 2010 show.  I especially love it with the modern Empire silhouettes.

Kinder Aggugini fall 2010(images from vogue.com)

While the eyes and lips took a dark turn, the skin was still perfect and glowing - exactly how you'd imagine Madame Récamier's healthy, youthful complexion.  The disheveled hair, I think, is a nod to Madame's crop of wild curls.

Kinder Aggugini fall 2010

Kinder Aggugini fall 2010(images from wwd.com)

I also think we see a little bit of Madame Récamier in Ladurée's line.  While Ladurée does not verbally refer to Madame Récamier, there is a picture of her from Gerard's portrait at their website.  Additionally, the overall style is reminiscent of the beauty ideals of the Napoleonic era, ideals which Madame Récamier shaped and was the undisputed leader.  The brand story states, "[Les Merveilleuses were] beautiful 'goddesses of liberty' who lived in Paris after the Revolution in the late 18th century and pursued their own beauty depending on a unique and individual sensibility.  In the 18th century young Parisian women cast off the post-revolution reign of terror and strict morals, aspiring for freedom and liberation. They remained loyal to France and believed in their senses without losing the pride of the aristocrats who lived in the period of the monarchy.  Merveilleuses (French) refers to a 'marvelous,' eccentric and elegant woman."  This description, combined with the illustration and small picture of Madame Récamier, definitely point to her continuing influence.

Ladurée website screenshot

Illustration of "les Merveilleuses" from the Ladurée website
(images from lm-laduree.com)

What do you think?  Would you have wanted to be in Madame Récamier's circle?  I must agree that she's rather exceptional beauty-wise, and while I tend to see modern-day socialites as vapid and/or pretentious, I think I would have wanted to hang out with Juliette.  I also think she may have been disappointed at her image being used to sell skincare, but would have, no doubt, been rather polite about it.  :)

 

 


Couture Monday: Monkeying around with Armani

Happy Chinese New Year!  This Armani palette will help you celebrate in shimmery style. YSL and MAC both occasionally release items in honor of the holiday (and both are this year), so I guess Armani is following suit.  

The red lacquer case depicts the Chinese symbols for fortune and luck.

Armani Chinese New Year palette

Armani Chinese New Year palette

Inside, the powder is inscribed with a silhouette of a monkey.  I thought this was well-done.  While more detail might have been interesting, keeping the design limited to a simple outline is probably the best way to go so that it doesn't veer into cartoon territory.

Armani Chinese New Year palette

Those born in a year of the monkey are said to be curious, sociable, mischievous and clever.  In fact, China may see a significant increase in births this year since the traits associated with this sign are so desirable.

Armani Chinese New Year palette

Armani Chinese New Year palette

I guess Couture Monday is a misnomer in this case, as I couldn't find any relationship to Armani's fashion - no special Year of the Monkey capsule collection or anything like that.  So in lieu of fashion, today I will bring you some of my favorite monkeys in art.  There's even a whole Tumblr devoted to the topic!  Some Chinese and Japanese examples.

Yi Yuanji, Monkeys and Cats, 11th century(image from wikipedia.org)

Gibbons at Play, 1427
(image from wikipedia.org)

Monkeys on a Limb by Mori Sosen, 18th century

Gibbon Reaching for the Moon's Reflection, Ohara Koson, 1926
(images from wikipedia.org)

And here are some monkeys in Western art:

A Monkey Smoking and Drinking with an Owl by Ferdinand Van Kessel, 17th century
(image from venetianred.net)

Georges Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on La Grande Jatte, 1884

Tropical Forest with Monkeys by Henri Rousseau, 1910(image from nga.gov)

The Monkey by Franz Marc, 1912
(image from wikiart.org)

Self Portrait with Monkeys by Frida Kahlo, 1943(image from anothermag.com)

Some other monkey business includes these home goods, a collection of lovely cards by Japanese designers, this exhibition at the Met, and you simply must check out these monkey orchids.

What do you think of the Armani palette?  And do you like monkeys either in general or as a decorative motif?


Shaking it with Lancome and Manet

In honor of the birthday of Edouard Manet (1832-1883), today I thought I'd share this 1949 Lancôme ad that refers to one of the artist's most famous works.   It looks like Lancôme released a lip color inspired by Manet's 1863 painting Olympia.

Lancome ad, 1949
(image from hprints.com)

Here's the original painting:

Manet - Olympia, 1863
(image from wikipedia)

It's not surprising a French cosmetics brand referred to a well-known work by an equally well-known French painter; however, I am curious to know why they chose Olympia.  The woman in the painting was Victorine Meurent, who served as Manet's model for many of his works.  Meli at Wild Beauty wrote an excellent post on Victorine and how scandalous the painting was considered when it debuted at the Paris Salon in 1865.  As she points out, not only was Victorine posing as a prostitute, she was daring to confront the viewer with absolutely no shame: "...she was staring straight at the viewer – without a hint of embarrassment or coquettishness. Once again, Manet had painted the viewer into an awkward encounter.  Even in modern times we expect our whores to project either seduction or shame, so Victorine’s matter-of-fact expression is startling in any age. But in 18th century Paris it hinted at a moment many had never seen – and those that had probably pretended they hadn’t. This might be a 'backstage' moment – before the courtesan greets a lover, and it’s almost too revealing in its frankness – we see the courtesan’s youth, beauty, cynicism, and business acumen all at once."  Indeed, the bold, thoroughly non-traditional presentation of a prostitute (or even a reclining nude, for that matter) that brings to the forefront the harsh reality behind the trade was cause for an uproar in 1860s Paris.  So this goes back to my question of why Lancôme chose to use Olympia, given that critics, having no idea what to make of the depiction of this woman, called her everything from a "grotesque India rubber" to an "ape on a bed."  Olympia seems to be a highly unlikely candidate for a beauty icon, but as Meli notes, perhaps her unconventional looks and fearless gaze were being celebrated by 1949.

In any case, this ad offers another bit of intrigue.  I noticed that the packaging for the lipstick is referred to as a "carquois", which translates to "quiver".  If you look really closely at the lipstick on the right in the ad you can see a Cupid holding a quiver of arrows.  Interestingly, Lancôme released their Fleches (Arrows) fragrance in 1938, the ads for which also feature Cupid and arrows, so maybe the theme of the "carquois" was borrowed from the perfume.  But that's not the only thing:  the "carquois" is also listed as a "shaker".  Another Lancôme ad, this one from 1951, uses this name for a particular case.  (Side note:  I like how the curved shape of the lipstick on the left is still in production today for their L'Absolu Rouge line.)  Apparently you could choose which jewelry-inspired case you wanted to house the new Rose Printemps shade (this assumption is based on me typing the ad copy into Google Translate, which we know isn't all that accurate).

1951 Lancome ad
(image from hprints.com)

Why is this notable?  Well, for spring 2016 Lancôme is introducing their "Juicy Shakers", a new "two-phase" formula consisting of oil and pigment that requires shaking before application.  I imagine it's similar to YSL's Volupté Tint in Oil but more fun to use - I like the idea of jiggling my lip stuff around in a cute martini shaker-like package.

Lancome Juicy Shakers
(image from chicprofile.com)

Lancôme seems to have taken a great deal of care in coming up with the name/idea, as they filed a trademark for it nearly 2 years ago.  I doubt any of their people used the Olympia ad or other vintage Lancôme ads that refer to the "shaker" when naming this new product, but it's a very interesting coincidence nonetheless. 

So, two separate and quite fascinating ideas provided by Lancôme's Olympia ad.  Which do you find more intriguing, the use of a rather scandalous work or the fact that Lancôme previously had the idea over 60 years ago to house one of their lip products in a so-called shaker?


More zodiac compact fun with Estée Lauder and Erté

This is the third and final installment of my unofficial series on zodiac/calendar themed beauty items.  Today I'm sharing Estée Lauder's epic collaboration with Art Deco artist Erté (1892-1990).  Erté completed a series of illustrations for the 12 zodiac signs, and in 2004 Estée rendered them in enamel to appear on their Lucidity powder compacts.  Why they added clear rhinestones on the sides is beyond me, as I feel the illustrations are beautiful enough to stand on their own.  Another thing I'm not clear on is when Erté illustrated these. I know the serigraphs were produced in 1982, but I don't know if that means Erté actually created them that year as well or if they existed as paintings prior to that.

Anyway, let's have a look.  Here are the compacts and the artist's original illustration below.  Capricorn:

Erté Estée Lauder zodiac compact, Capricorn

Erté - Capricorn
(images from ebay.com and wikiart.org)

Aquarius:

Erté Estée Lauder zodiac compact, Aquarius

Erté Aquarius
(images from ebay.com and wikiart.org)

Pisces:

Erté Estée Lauder zodiac compact, Pisces

Erté - Pisces
(images from ebay.com and wikiart.org)

Aries:

Erté Estée Lauder zodiac compact, Aries

Erté - Aries
(images from ebay.com and wikiart.org)

Taurus:

Erté Estée Lauder zodiac compact, Taurus

Erté - Taurus
(images from ebay.com and wikiart.org)

Gemini:

Erté Estée Lauder zodiac compact, Gemini

Erté - Gemini
(images from ebay.com and wikiart.org)

Cancer:

Erté Estée Lauder zodiac compact, Cancer

Erté - Cancer
(images from etsy.com and wikiart.org)

Leo:

Erté Estée Lauder zodiac compact, Leo

Erté - Leo
(images from ebay.com and wikiart.org)

Virgo:

Erté Estée Lauder zodiac compact, Virgo

Erté - Virgo
(images from ebay.com and wikiart.org)

Libra:

Erté Estée Lauder zodiac compact, Libra

Erté - Libra
(images from etsy.com and wikiart.org)

Scorpio:

Erté Estée Lauder zodiac compact, Scorpio

Erté - Scorpio
(images from ebay.com and wikiart.org)

Sagittarius:

Erté Estée Lauder zodiac compact, Sagittarius

Erté - Sagittarius
(images from ebay.com and wikiart.org)

Erté was born Romain de Tirtoff in St. Petersburg and moved to Paris at the age of 20.  Adopting the French pronunciation of his initials as his artist's name, he initially worked as a costume designer for the opera and theater.  Erté was a talented illustrator in his own right, but it was his work for Harper's Bazaar that catapulted him to fame among fashion and theater insiders.  His cover art for the publication, 240 covers in all between 1915 and 1937, had an immediate and long-lasting (albeit cyclical) impact on the fashion industry.  He was somewhat ignored by the art world until the late 1960s when they was a resurgence of interest in his work.  That faded again until his death in 1990, then resurfaced full-force in 2004 when a gallery in London held the most comprehensive exhibition of his work since 1967.  Consisting of 75 of Erté's best pieces, the show included his famous alphabet series, which had never been exhibited in its entirety (the artist had began working on it in 1927 and did not complete it until 1967). The series was to be sold as one piece, with an asking price of £2 million.  The 2004 exhibition and ensuing craze for Erté's work also explains why Estée Lauder chose to release their Erté compacts then. Erté's work is still quite popular today, as a recent exhibition at the Met and upcoming exhibition at the Hermitage demonstrate. 

The Financial Times has an excellent summary of Erté's life and influence, which you can check out here.  There's also this informative article from the New York Times and some general articles on Art Deco design (Erté is known as the father of this style)1.  Right now though I want to show you some of Erté's other work, as it's truly dazzling.  The man loved taking on series - in addition to the alphabet, he covered everything from card decks to the 4 seasons to the 7 deadly sins. 

Here is one illustration from the Alphabet.  I think it's pretty obvious why I chose the letter G to highlight.  #mermaidsrule

Erté - Letter G

Number 3:

Erté - Number 3

He also illustrated each birthstone - here's Sapphire.  Both the Numerals series and the Precious Stones were originally produced as lithographs in 1968 and 1969, respectively.

Erté - Sapphire

And another mermaid for good measure.  I think this is my favorite Erté mermaid.  Between the shell and coral headdress, multiple fins and the fact that she's astride a seahorse and wielding a pearl-strung coral branch as a spear, she is possibly the fiercest yet chicest mermaid I've come across.  All hail warrior glam mermaid!  She represents water from Erté's The Four Elements series.

Erté - Water
(images from wikiart.org)

I felt as though I needed to include some examples of Harper's covers as well.  Some faves:

Erté - Harper's Bazaar cover, May 1919
(image from intothebeautifulnew.tumblr.com)

Erté - Harper's Bazaar cover, March 1926
(image from harpersbazaar.tumblr.com)

Erté - Harper's Bazaar cover, March 1934
(image from americanfashionmagazines.com)

Finally, two makeup-related illustrations.

Erté - Compact Vanities

Erté - Makeup

Erté explains his work in a 1986 interview:  "It is different from everyone's...Art Deco is considered as the style of the 20th century.  I was always by myself. I was influenced only in my childhood, by the on Greek vases and by a book on Persian and Indian miniatures, because of the colors. At the age of 6 or 7, I found a book in my father's library of these miniatures, and every night after dinner, I wanted to look at it."  These miniatures in turn influenced his process.  He never used pencil or pen; instead, he painted with gouache using a tiny brush, sometimes with a single hair.  Equally impressive was his work ethic.  He worked right up until a few weeks before his death at the age of 97.  In one interview from 2 years before, when he was 95, he stated, "If I don't keep working, I would be bored to death."

Getting back to Estée Lauder, I seriously love these compacts.  From what I can tell in photos, the illustrations transferred nicely to a compact format (except I'm not crazy about the rhinestones...while I love me some bling I don't think they added anything to the design.)  Like Elgin's zodiac compacts, I feel a compulsive urge to collect them all!  I also think "warrior glam" could be the latest fashion trend. Let's try to make it a thing, shall we?

What are your thoughts on Erté's work and the Estée collab? 

1 There has been so much written about Erté I couldn't possibly fit it all into this post.  For further reading and eye candy check out the huge selection as Amazon.

 


Get cherubic cheeks with Guerlain's Angelic Radiance Météorites

I'm still here...just been pretty sad and work's been kicking my ass.  The snow we had yesterday on the first day of spring was particularly cruel and depressing.  So today I'm hoping to perk myself up a bit by posting about more spring goodies. 

I thought this past holiday season was the peak of angel-themed items, but Guerlain's Angelic Radiance Météorites proved me wrong.  The design is a departure from previous Météorites as they've got a delicate paper lid, and instead of a pattern there's a scene of two cherubs frolicking among some foliage.  Usually I like a sturdier lid since paper is more prone to damage long-term, but in this case I think it works well combined with the illustration and the soft pink tones.  It also makes me a little hungry - I think a larger version of the box would be perfect for macaron packaging.  :)

Guerlain spring 2015 Météorites

Guerlain spring 2015 Météorites

Guerlain spring 2015 Météorites

I've written about cherubs before and gave some examples of them in Renaissance art, but the ornate decorations on the Guerlain box look more like they were inspired by 17th century art rather than the Renaissance.  I poked around online to see if I could find anything similar and came across the work of engraver Jean Lepautre (1618-1682), whose work, I think, is reminiscent of the Guerlain container.   This site has a concise description of Lepautre:  "[He] has been described as the most important ornament engraver of the 17th century. His prodigious output extended to more than 2000 prints, mostly from his own original designs.  He was not only the originator of the grandiose Louis XIV style but was also responsible for disseminating and popularizing its full lavish repertoire throughout Europe. Le Pautre's often over-elaborate and flamboyant designs frequently included arabesques, grotesques and cartouches, together with elements from classical mythology.  His diverse range of subject matter, influenced by his carpentry/joinery architectural background, included: friezes, wallpaper, alcoves, fireplaces, furniture, murals, ceiling mouldings, fountains and grottoes."

In 1751 Charles-Antoine Jombert produced a 3-volume series of Lepautre's work, and astonishingly enough, the University of Heidelberg digitized the entire thing and made it available to the public. I went through each image and picked out what I thought most resembled the Météorites case.

Work by 17th century ornament engraver Jean Lepautre

Work by 17th century ornamental engraver Jean Lepautre

Work by 17th century ornament engraver Jean Lepautre

Work by 17th century ornament engraver Jean Lepautre

Work by 17th century ornamental engraver Jean Lepautre

Admittedly I chose this one not just because of the angels but because there seems to be mermaid angels in the bottom panel!

Work by 17th century ornamental engraver Jean Lepautre

I tried to get some more close-up images so you could see the similarities between these engravings and the Guerlain box - the etch marks, the lines of the foliage, even the cherubs' hair are nearly the same.

Work by 17th century ornamental engraver Jean Lepautre

Work by 17th century ornamental engraver Jean Lepautre

Work by 17th century ornamental engraver Jean Lepautre
(images from digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de)

I wonder whether this is just a coincidence or if the design team at Guerlain had been looking at Lepautre.  I'm also curious as to why they decided to do a scene featuring angels as I didn't think cherubs were a Guerlain motif.  As it turns out, angels appeared on a Guerlain powder container from 1918.  The Poudre aux Ballons were scented with various Guerlain fragrances.  (For the record, this is officially on my wishlist - I hope I can track one down!  I also just remembered that I've come across the Poudre aux Ballons before.)

Guerlain Poudre aux Ballons, 1918

Guerlain Poudre aux Ballons
(images from guerlainperfumes.blogspot.com)

You may recall that balloons were used in last year's spring promo image (more about that in a future post.) 

Anyway, while I can't say definitively that Guerlain's latest release is in any way inspired by 17th century ornament engravings, it at least caused me to discover an artist that I wouldn't have known about otherwise.  And I really like the Météorites packaging - so feminine and springy and French.  It may not be as sleek and sophisticated, as, say, the Impériale Météorites (holiday 2009) or the 2012 Pucci collection, but I think it's a refreshing change from what they normally do.

What do you think? 


Candy is king! Cosme Decorte holiday 2014 coffret

I loved last year's holiday coffret from Cosme Decorte so it's no surprise I'm pleased with this year's version.  King of Sweets features the same basic design as the 2013 coffret - a red outer box with a laser-cut scene on the interior of the lid - but with a different theme.  The box has been outfitted with a golden bow to resemble a box of candy, while the inside cutout depicts a magical candyland.

Cosme Decorte holiday 2014 King of Sweets coffret

Cosme Decorte holiday 2014 King of Sweets coffret

The design is really precious, with a jolly crowned snowman as the"king of sweets" holding court amidst a delectable landscape of candy. 

Cosme Decorte holiday 2014 King of Sweets coffret lid

The set includes a stick blush (upper left, wrapped in red), an eye shadow palette (lower left, meant to look like chocolate), a candy cane-packaged gel liner and pink lip balm.

Cosme Decorte holiday 2014 King of Sweets coffret

Cosme Decorte holiday 2014 King of Sweets coffret palette

Cosme Decorte holiday 2014 King of Sweets coffret palette

When the coffret first arrived I spent a few minutes daydreaming about a forest made of candy (sort of like when Homer visits the land of chocolate).  Imagine my great delight a few weeks later when one of my favorite blogs featured the art of Will Cotton, who specializes in painting truly amazing dessert-filled landscapes.  They were exactly what I was envisioning when looking at the coffret!  While Cotton's work sometimes represents the darker themes of excess and greed, I personally like to interpret it as a purely happy fantasy, where one can escape to a wondrous world overflowing with an abundance of sweet treats.  The bright colors and perfectly rendered textures of all the sweets make these imaginary scenes appear real.  That accuracy is not accidental either:  Cotton has a professional pastry oven in his studio so that he prepare desserts and re-create them flawlessly on canvas.  He also sometimes builds other props and life-size sets, because, as he says, "this way I can really lose myself in the surprises and unexpected details of the subject, and in a very real way, I’m no longer painting something imaginary, because in fact, it’s right there in front of me."

Will Cotton:  Chalet (2003)

Will Cotton:  Spumoni River (2003)

Will Cotton:  Pudding Flood (2003)

Will Cotton:  Forest (2003) 

Will Cotton:  Candy Stick Forest (2005)

Will Cotton:  Untitled (2004)

Will Cotton:  Eutopia (2008)

Will Cotton:  Pastoral (2009)

Will Cotton:  Dona (2011)

Will Cotton:  Macaron Garden (2012)

Will Cotton:  Nut House (2012)
(images from willcotton.com)

They're just all so crazily decadent.  

Getting back to the coffret, I think it would be a perfect addition to a revamped Sweet Tooth exhibition (and maybe I could have some of Mr. Cotton's work hanging as a backdrop!)

What do you think of the coffret and of Will Cotton's work?


T. LeClerc Paris in Winter pressed powder

In honor of the snowy weather that's hitting my neck of the woods I thought I'd post this pressed powder by T. LeClerc that I spotted at Beautyhabit.  I don't think I have anything in the Museum's collection from this brand and I was impressed by the understated elegance of the design, which features the Eiffel Tower amidst softly cascading snowflakes.  "Paris l'Hiver" is embossed in the center in T. LeClerc's classic Belle Epoque-style font, with their signature frieze motif encircling the wintry scene.

T.LeClerc Paris in Winter pressed powder

T.LeClerc Paris in Winter powder

T.LeClerc Paris in Winter closeup

The simplicity of the design is, oddly enough, what makes it so striking.  There's no shimmer, glitter or even more than one color, yet the illustration perfectly represents the quiet beauty of Paris during a snowfall.  It's rather unexpected too.  Most people, including me, think of Paris in springtime - it never occurred to me to consider how gorgeous the city's landmarks must look under a blanket of snow.

Fortunately, renowned French photographer Robert Doisneau (1912-1994) took some truly breathtaking pictures of the City of Lights, capturing all facets of Parisian life.  La tour Eiffel sous la neige (1964) reminds me quite a bit of the T. LeClerc palette. 

Robert-Doisneau-1964
(image from robert-doisneau.com)

If you've never heard of Doisneau before now, don't feel bad - I had no idea who he was until I came across this article at the Daily Mail, which also included a picture of his that I actually recognized.  I remember that a poster of Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville (1950) was hanging in nearly every girl's dormroom in college (except for me, of course...I had Pulp Fiction posters adorning my walls).  It's arguably Doisneau's most famous work, sort of like what Starry Night is to Van Gogh.

Robert-Doisneau-1950
(image from dailymail.co.uk)

Doisneau mostly did street scenes and pictures of people rather than landscapes, but his whole portfolio is really amazing and is available online if you want to browse.  :)

Getting back to the T. LeClerc powder, I thought it was very refreshing in the unique scene it depicted, the subtle design and the fact that it was something a little different for the brand, as I don't think this company usually puts out collectible pieces.   Interestingly, T. LeClerc dates all the way back to 1881, so I'd love to get my hands on some vintage items from them. 

What do you think of the powder? 


Couture Monday: Chanel Rêve d'Orient quad

Today I want to share a relatively hard-to-find Chanel quad that debuted during their 2015 cruise collection show.  (This quad is also being given away by me - there's still a few hours left to enter - but will be arriving soon to the Chanel website so don't fret if you don't win the giveaway!)  Rêve d'Orient has a gorgeous color scheme consisting of shimmery ivory, warm gold, deep bronze and matte black, all embossed with a smattering of tiny stars.

Chanel Rêve d'Orient quad

Chanel Rêve d'Orient quad

Chanel Rêve d'Orient quad closeup

This quad was used on the models for 2015 resort collection runway show to create a smoky, Middle East-inspired eye with a dab of luxurious gold leaf placed on the inner corners. 

Chanel resort  2015 makeup
(image from vogue.co.uk)

However, I have no idea why a star design was included on the shadows themselves.  Stars didn't appear on any of the clothing.   One possibility is that it's an homage to Islamic religion (the show took place in Dubai), whose mosques are sometimes adorned with stars.  The most famous example is the Star Mosque in Bangladesh

Star mosque, Bangladesh
(image from beautifulmosque.com)

Some mosques have stars at the top of their spires, usually paired with a crescent.

Moroccan mosque
(image from essaouira.nu)

And some of the headbands at the show featured a crescent motif.

Chanel resort 2015 - crescents
(image from vogue.co.uk)

Still, most star patterns in Islamic art and architecture consist of 6-, 8- and 10-pointed stars so it's quite a reach to assume Islam is what Chanel was referencing, especially considering there's no symmeterical pattern but rather a random scattering of stars.  It could just be that it's a nonspecific expression of Karl Lagerfeld's latest take on the East-meets-West theme.  As Lagerfeld remarked, "It’s a collection made for this part of the world, but I think, and hope, it’s for women all over the world."

The more likely possibility is that as with the Camelia de Plumes highlighter, the stars are borrowed from the first jewelry line by Coco Chanel that was introduced in 1932; specifically, the Comète series.  Here are some of the original pieces (does anyone else find the mannequins to be incredibly creepy?)

Chanel Comète jewelry, 1932

Chanel Comète jewelry, 1932
(images from elle.com)

An updated line was released for the original's 80th anniversary in 2012.

Chanel Comète rings

Chanel Comète earrings and bracelet
(images from chanel.com)

Since I have no conclusive answer on the star pattern, I thought I'd show you a slightly different Rêve d'Orient.  This 1881 watercolor by Gustave Moreau (1826-1898) has the same name as the Chanel quad and shows a Peri (a fairy-like creature from Persian mythology) perched on a dragon and holding a lotus flower.  The top of a mosque appears on the right side in the background. 

Rêve d'Orient by Gustave Moreau
(image from christies.com)

You can read the entire description of this work and the meaning behind it here, since Christie's does a much better job than I can.  Moreau is one of my favorite artists - I love French Symbolism and I'm actually reading this book on it now, so I was really excited to find this. 

Anyway, as with the Chanel Camelia de Plumes highlighter, I'm a little disappointed there was no concrete explanation for the pattern.  Both palettes vaguely reference Chanel fashion and history, but there's no real, literal connection to the clothing we saw in recent shows.  Nevertheless the Rêve d'Orient quad is pretty and the star design is perfect for the upcoming holiday exhibition, so I can't complain too much.

What do you think the stars mean?  And I know it's comparing apples to oranges, but do you prefer Chanel's Rêve d'Orient or Moreau's?